Old Testament Summary

YearBookOverviewComments
2200-2000 BCGenesisCreation, Adam and Eve. The Fall. Cain and Abel. Enoch taken to heaven. Noah and the Flood.Noah’s sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth. Tower of Babel. Language confused and peoples disperse. 2200-2000 God tells Abram to go to Canaan. Abram travels from his home in Ur in Mesopotamia to Canaan,the Promised Land. God promises to give the land to Abram’s descendants. Abram goes to Egypt andback due to famine. Ishmael born. Abram’s name changed to Abraham. Sodom and Gomorrah. Isaac born.Earliest cuneiform writing (3000 BC). Middle Bronze Age.Pyramids built in Egypt and ziggurats built in Mesopotamia
2000-1600 BC Isaac and Rebekah have twins, Jacob and Esau. Jacob goes to Haran, marries Leah and Rachel,has 12 sons. The Lord names Jacob “Israel.” Son Joseph sold into slavery, taken to Egypt.Old Babylonian Period.Minoan Crete, palace at Knossos, legend of the Minotaur.of the Minotaur.
1800 to1600 BC Joseph interprets Pharaoh’s dream, becomes a ruler in Egypt. Jacob (Israel) and family go to Egypt.Jacob’s descendants live in Egypt about 400 years. They are slaves for part of that time, buildin Pithom and Raamses, which are store cities.King Hammurabi of Babylon writes “code of law.” Babylonians.develop the 60-minute hour. After Hammurabi’s death, Hittites plunder Babylon. Assyria rises in strength.
1600-1400 BCExodus, Leviticus Numbers, DeuteronomyBaby Moses saved by Pharaoh’s daughter. God speaks to Moses in burning bush. Moses (age 80) gives God’s message to Pharaoh. Miracles. Plagues. First Passover.The Exodus: Moses leads the Israelites out of Egypt. Crosses the Red Sea. Wandering 40 yearsStonehenge erected in Britain (2800-1500?). Late Bronze Age.Mycenaean civilization in Greece. Minoan Crete destroyed by volcano and earthquakes. Period of the Egyptian Empire.
1400-1200 BC

Joshua, Judges

During wanderings (above): Ten Commandments. Laws. Golden calf. The Tabernacle is completed. Ark of the Covenant. Spies sent to Canaan. Rahab hides spies. Moses dies.
After the 40 years, Joshua conquers Canaan. Period of the Judges and cycles of disobedien
Egyptian Pharaoh Ikhnaton develops a monotheistic religion.Tutankhamen becomes Pharaoh of Egypt, and reinstates earlier gods. Legend: Greeks use the Trojan horse to defeat Troy.
1200-1100 BCRuthJudges include Deborah and Gideon. People of Israel attacked by the Philistines, Canaanites,
Midianites, Ammonites, and others. Ruth, a widow from Moab, chooses to follow God.
Eli, high priest 40 year
Iron Age. People begin to use iron tools. Phoenicians have main centers in Tyre and Sidon.
Mycenaean civilization collapses. Greeks decline
1100-1000 BC1 & 2 Samuel 1 ChroniclesSamson pulls down Philistine temple in Gaza. Samuel, the first prophet and last judge of Israel.
Saul becomes first king of Israel. David slays Goliath. Saul disobeys the Lord and the Lord rejects him as king. David selected as next king. Saul tries to kill David. (See “Kings of the Old Testament” at far right
Phoenicians develop supremacy in the Mediterranean: seafaring,trade in wood and cloth. Phoenicians develop an alphabet that is the basis of the modern English alphabet.
1000-900 BCPsalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes Song of Solomon, 1 KingsDavid is the second king of Israel. When David becomes old, his sons Absalom and later Adonijah conspire for the throne. David and Bathsheba’s son, Solomon, becomes the third king. First Temple built.After Solomon’s death the kingdom divides: Israel (north) and Judah (south).Etruscans arrive in Italy. Queen of Sheba (Yemen today) visits King Solomon
900-800 BC2 Kings,JoelElijah and the prophets of Baal. Jezebel, the wicked queen of Israel. Elijah and Elisha see chariot of fire.Elijah goes to heaven in whirlwind. Elisha and the miracles of the widow’s oil and raising the Shunammite’s son. Naaman healed of leprosy. The Lord blinds the attacking Aramean army. Joel.Period of the Assyrian Empire.Assyrians known as cruel warriors who torture prisoners
and deport people from conquered nations.

800-700 BC

Jonah, Micah, Isaiah Hosea, AmosJonah is sent to Nineveh. Amos and Hosea prophesy to Israel. Isaiah and Micah prophesy to Judah. Fall of Samaria (Israel) to Assyria. (722 BC) People deported to other lands.Greeks colonize Italy and Sicily. First Olympic games. Nineveh is capital of Assyrian Empire. Founding of Rome (753 BC).
700-600 BCNahum, Jeremiah, Lamentations Zephaniah, HabakkukIsaiah, Jeremiah, other prophets warn Judah and other nations. Babylonians seize Judah (606 BC),and start carrying off inhabitants. Daniel and friends taken to Babylon. Ark of the Covenant lost.Nineveh destroyed by Babylonians. Medes. Assyria conquered.Period of the New Babylonian Empire.
600-500 BC2 Chronicles, Daniel, Ezekiel ObadiahJerusalem falls and Judah destroyed (586 BC). Captives taken by King Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon.Daniel in lion’s den. Jeremiah taken to Egypt. First Jews return to home in 536 BC under Zerubbabel.Second Temple built.Babylon’s Hanging Gardens is one of the wonders of the world.Babylon conquered by Medes. Persians. Edict of Cyrus, Persian king.Period of Persian Empire. Confucius in China. Buddha in India.
500-400 BCHaggai, Zechariah, Esther Ezra, Nehemiah, MalachiKing Xerxes of Persia chooses Esther to be queen. Esther saves the Jews from a plot by Haman. More Jews led by Ezra, and another group led by Nehemiah, return to their homeland.
Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt. Haggai. Zechariah. Jews under Persian rule.
Persian kings: Darius I, Xerxes (Ahasuerus), Artaxerxes I, Darius II.Parthenon built. Socrates. Runner carries news of Greek victory at battle of Marathon 26 miles to Athens. Origin of athletic “marathon.”
500-400 BCHaggai, Zechariah, Esther Ezra, Nehemiah, MalachiKing Xerxes of Persia chooses Esther to be queen. Esther saves the Jews from a plot by Haman. More Jews led by Ezra, and another group led by Nehemiah, return to their homeland.
Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt. Haggai. Zechariah. Jews under Persian rule.
Persian kings: Darius I, Xerxes (Ahasuerus), Artaxerxes I, Darius II.Parthenon built. Socrates. Runner carries news of Greek victory at battle of Marathon 26 miles to Athens. Origin of athletic “marathon.”